Lighting Guide

A

 

Amperes (Amps)

A measure of electrical current. In incandescent lamps, the current is related to voltage and power as follows: Current (Amps) = Power (Watts) / Voltage (Volts).

 

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)

A consensus-based organization which coordinates voluntary standards for the physical, electrical and performance characteristics of lamps, ballasts, luminaires and other lighting and electrical equipment.

 

 

B

Ballast

An auxiliary piece of equipment required to start and to properly control the flow of current to gas discharge light sources such as fluorescent and high intensity discharge (HID) lamps.

 

Ballast Factor (BF)

This is the percentage of a lamp's rated lumen output that can be expected when operated on a specific, commercially available ballast. For example, a ballast with a ballast factor of 0.93 will result in the lamp's emitting 93% of its rated lumen output. A ballast with a lower BF results in less light output and also generally consumes less power.

 

Bayonet

A style of bulb base which uses keyways instead of threads to connect the bulb to the fixture base. The bulb is locked in place by pushing it down and turning it clockwise.

 

Beam Angle

The angular dimension of the cone of light from reflectorized lamps (such as R and PAR types) encompassing the central part of the beam out to the angle where the intensity is 50% of maximum. The beam angle sometimes called "beam spread" is often part of the ordering code for the reflectorized lamps. Example: The 50PAR30/HIR/NFL25 is a 50 watt PAR30 narrow flood lamp with a beam angle of 25 degrees. See also Field Angle.

 

Bi-pin

This is the typical base for a fluorescent tube of 1 to 4 feet in length. It consists of two prong contacts which connect into the fixture. Medium bi-pins are used with type T-8 and T-12 tubular fluorescent lamps, and miniature bi-pins are used for tubular T-5 fluorescent lamps.

 

 

C

 

Canadian Standards Association (CSA)

An organization that writes standards and tests lighting equipment for performance as well as electrical and fire safety. Canadian provincial laws generally require that all products sold for consumer use in Canada must have CSA or equivalent approval.

 

Candela (CD)

The measure of luminous intensity of a source in a given direction. The term has been retained from the early days of lighting when a standard candle of a fixed size and composition was defined as producing one candela in every direction. A plot of intensity versus direction is called a candela distribution curve and is often provided for reflectorized lamps and for luminaires with a lamp operating in them.

 

Candlepower

An obsolete term for luminous intensity; current practice is to refer to this simply as candelas.

 

Center Beam Candlepower (CBCP)

Refers to the luminous intensity at the center of the beam of a blown or pressed reflector lamp (such as a PAR lamp). Measured in candelas.

 

Ceramic Metal Halide

A type of metal halide lamp that uses a ceramic material for the arc tube instead of glass quartz, resulting in better color rendering (>80 CRI) and improved lumen maintenance.

 

Coefficient of Utilization (CU)

In general lighting calculations, the fraction of initial lamp lumens that reach the work plane. CU is a function of luminaire efficiency, room surface reflectances and room shape.

 

Color Rendering Index (CRI)

An international system used to rate a lamp's ability to render object colors. The higher the CRI (based upon a 0-100 scale) the richer colors generally appear. CRI ratings of various lamps may be compared, but a numerical comparison is only valid if the lamps are close in color temperature. CRI differences among lamps are not usually significant (visible to the eye) unless the difference is more than 3 to 5 points.

 

Color Temperature (Correlated Color Temperature-CCT)

A number indicating the degree of "yellowness" or "blueness" of a white light source. Measured in kelvins, CCT represents the temperature an incandescent object (like a filament) must reach to mimic the color of the lamp. Yellowish-white ("warm") sources, like incandescent lamps, have lower color temperatures in the 2700K-3000K range; white and bluish-white ("cool") sources, such as cool white (4100K) and natural daylight (6000K), have higher color temperatures. The higher the color temperature the whiter, or bluer, the light will be.

 

Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL)

The general term applied to fluorescent lamps that are single-ended and that have smaller diameter tubes that are bent to form a compact shape. Some CFLs have integral ballasts and medium or candalabra screw bases for easy replacement of incandescent lamps.

 

 

E

 

Efficacy

See Luminous Efficacy

 

Electromagnetic Spectrum

A continuum of electric and magnetic radiation that can be characterized by wavelength or frequency. Visible light encompasses a small part of the electromagnetic spectrum in the region from about 380 nanometers (violet) to 770 nanometers (red) by wavelength.

 

Electronic Ballast

A short name for a fluorescent high-frequency electronic ballast. Electronic ballasts use solid state electronic components and typically operate fluorescent lamps at frequencies in the range of 25 to 35 kHz. The benefits are: increased lamp efficacy, reduced ballast losses and lighter, smaller ballasts compared to electromagnetic ballasts. Electronic ballasts may also be used with HID (high intensity discharge) lamps.

 

Elliptical Reflector (ER) Lamp

An incandescent lamp with a built-in elliptically shaped reflecting surface. This shape produces a focal point directly in front of the lamp which reduces the light absorption in some types of luminaires. It is particularly effective at increasing the efficacy of baffled downlights.

 

Energy Policy Act (EPACT)

Comprehensive energy legislation passed by the U. S. Congress in 1992. The lighting portion includes lamp labeling and minimum energy efficacy (lumens/watt) requirements for many commonly used incandescent and fluorescent lamp types. Federal Canadian legislation sets similar minimum energy efficacy requirements for incandescent reflector lamps and common linear fluorescent lamps.

 

 

F

 

Federal Communications Commission (FCC)

The U. S. Federal agency that regulates emissions in the radio frequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Part 18 of the FCC rules specifies electromagnetic interference (EMI) from lighting devices operating at frequencies greater than 9 kilohertz (kHz). Typical electronically-ballasted compact fluorescent lamps operate in the 24 to 100 kHz frequency range.

 

Field Angle

The angular dimension of the cone of light from reflectorized lamps (such as R and PAR types) encompassing the central part of the beam out to the angle where the intensity is 10% of maximum. See Beam Angle.

 

Fluorescent Lamp

A high efficiency lamp utilizing an electric discharge through low pressure mercury vapor to produce ultra-violet (UV) energy. The UV excites phosphor materials applied as a thin layer on the inside of a glass tube which makes up the structure of the lamp. The phosphors transform the UV to visible light.

 

Footcandle (FC)

A unit of illuminance or light falling onto a surface. It stands for the light level on a surface one foot from a standard candle. One footcandle is equal to one lumen per square foot. See also Lux.

 

Full Spectrum Lighting

A marketing term, typically associated with light sources that are similar to some forms of natural daylight (5000K and above, 90+ CRI), but sometimes more broadly used for lamps that have a smooth and continuous color spectrum.

 

 

H

 

Halogen Lamp

A halogen lamp is an incandescent lamp with a filament that is surrounded by halogen gases, such as iodine or bromine. Halogen gases allow the filaments to be operated at higher temperatures and higher efficacies. The halogen participates in a tungsten transport cycle, returning tungsten to the filament and prolonging lamp life.

 

Halogen-IR (HIR) Lamp

High-efficiency tungsten halogen lamps. HIR lamps utilize shaped filament tubes coated with numerous layers of materials that transmit light but reflect the heat (infrared) back into the filament. This reduces the power needed to keep the filament hot.

 

High-Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamp

A general term for mercury, metal halide and high-pressure sodium lamps. HID lamps contain compact arc tubes which enclose various gases and metal salts operating at relatively high pressures and temperatures.

 

High-Pressure Sodium (HPS) Lamp

HPS lamps are high intensity discharge light sources that produce light by an electrical discharge though sodium vapor operating at relatively high pressures and temperatures.

 

 

I

 

Illuminance

The "density" of light (lumens/area) incident on a surface; i.e. the light level on a surface. Illuminance is measured in footcandles or lux.

 

Incandescent Lamp

A light source that generates light utilizing a thin filament wire (usually of tungsten) heated to white heat by an electric current passing through it.

 

Induction Lighting

Gases can be excited directly by radio-frequency or microwaves from a coil that creates induced electromagnetic fields. This is called induction lighting and it differs from a conventional discharge, which uses electrodes to carry current into the arc. Induction lamps have no electrodes inside the chamber and generally, therefore, have longer life than standard lamps.

 

Infrared Radiation

Electromagnetic energy radiated in the wavelength range of about 770 to 1,000,000 nanometers. Energy in this range cannot be seen by the human eye, but can be sensed as heat by the skin.

 

Instant Start

A type of ballast designed to start fluorescent lamps as soon as the power is applied. Most T8 fluorescent lamps are being operated on electronic instant-start ballasts.

 

 

K

 

Kilowatt (KW)

The measure of electrical power equal to 1000 watts.

 

Kilowatt Hour(KWH)

The standard measure of electrical energy and the typical billing unit used by electrical utilities for electricity use. A 100-watt lamp operated for 10 hours consumes 1000 watt-hours (100 x 10) or one kilowatt-hour. If the utility charges $.10/kWh, then the electricity cost for the 10 hours of operation would be 10 cents (1 x $.10)

 

 

L

 

Lamp

The term used to refer to the complete light source package, including the inner parts as well the outer bulb or tube. "Lamp", of course, is also commonly used to refer to a type of small light fixture such as a table lamp.

 

Life

See Rated Lamp Life.

 

Light

Radiant energy that can be sensed or seen by the human eye. Visible light is measured in lumens.

 

Light Center Length (L.C.L.)

The distance between the center of the filament, or arc tube, and a reference plane - usually the bottom of the lamp base. Refer to the following chart for reference plane locations.

Base type

L.C.L Reference Plane Location

All screw bases (except Mini-Can)

Bottom of base contact

Mini-Can

Where diameter of ceramic base insulator is .531 inches

3-Contact Medium

Bottom of base contact

Mogul Medium Prefocus

Top of base fins

Mogul Prefocus

Top of base fins

Medium BiPost

Base end of bulb (Glass lamps)
Bottom of ceramic base (Quartz lamps)

Mogul BiPost

Shoulder of posts (Glass lamps)
Bottom of ceramic base (Quartz lamps)

2-Pin Prefocus

Bottom of ceramic base

S.C. or D.C. Bayonet Candelabra

Top of base pins

Medium Bayonet

Top of base pins

S.C. or D.C. Prefocus

Plane of locating bases on prefocus collar

Medium 2-Pin

Bottom of metal base shell


 

Lumen

A measure of the luminous flux or quantity of light emitted by a source. For example, a dinner candle provides about 12 lumens. A 60-watt Soft White incandescent lamp provides about 840 lumens.

 

Lumen Maintenance

A measure of how well a lamp maintains its light output over time. It may be expressed numerically or as a graph of light output vs. time.

 

Lumens Per Watt (LPW)

A ratio expressing the luminous efficacy of a light source.

 

Typical Lamp Efficacies:

Thomas Edison's first lamp — 1.4 lpW

Incandescent lamps — 10-40

Halogen incandescent lamps — 20-45

Fluorescent lamps — 35-105

Mercury lamps — 50-60

Metal halide lamps — 60-120

High-pressure sodium lamps — 60-140

Note: The values above for discharge lamps do not include the effect of the ballasts, which must be used with those lamps. Taking ballast losses into account reduces "system" or lamp-ballast efficacies typically by 10-20% depending upon the type of ballast used.

 

Luminaire

A complete lighting unit consisting of a lamp (or lamps), ballast (or ballasts) as required together with the parts designed to distribute the light, position and protect the lamps and connect them to the power supply. A luminaire is often referred to as a fixture.

 

Luminaire Efficiency

The ratio of total lumens emitted by a luminaire to those emitted by the lamp or lamps used in that luminaire.

 

Luminance

A photometric measure of "brightness" of a surface as seen by the observer, measured in candelas per square meter.

 

Luminous Efficacy

The light output (lumens) of a light source divided by the total power input (watts) to that source. It is expressed in lumens per watt.

 

LUX (LX)

A unit of illuminance or light falling onto a surface. One lux is equal to one lumen per square meter. Ten lux approximately equals one footcandle.

 

 

M

 

Maximum Overall Length (M.O.L.)

The end-to-end measurement of a lamp, expressed in inches or millimeters.

 

Mean Lumens

The average light output of a lamp over its rated life. Based on the shape of the lumen depreciation curve, for fluorescent and metal halide lamps, mean lumens are measured at 40% of rated lamp life. For mercury, high-pressure sodium and incandescent lamps, mean lumen ratings refer to lumens at 50% of rated lamp life. See Lumen Maintenance.

 

Mercury Lamp

A high-intensity discharge light source operating at a relatively high pressure (about 1 atmosphere) and temperature in which most of the light is produced by radiation from excited mercury vapor. Phosphor coatings on some lamp types add additional light and improve color rendering.

 

Metal Halide Lamp

A high-intensity discharge light source in which the light is produced by the radiation from mercury, plus halides of metals such as sodium, scandium, indium and dysprosium. Some lamp types may also utilize phosphor coatings.

 

 

N

 

Nanometer

A unit of wavelength equal to one billionth of a meter.

 

 

P

 

Par Lamp

PAR is an acronym for parabolic aluminized reflector. A PAR lamp, which may utilize either an incandescent filament, a halogen filament tube or a HID arc tube, is a precision pressed-glass reflector lamp. PAR lamps rely on both the internal reflector and prisms in the lens for control of the light beam.

 

Phosphor

An inorganic chemical compound processed into a powder and deposited on the inner glass surface of fluorescent tubes and some mercury and metal-halide lamp bulbs. Phosphors are designed to absorb short wavelength ultraviolet radiation and to transform and emit it as visible light.

 

Power Factor (PF)

A measure of the phase difference between voltage and current drawn by an electrical device, such as a ballast or motor. Power factors can range from 0 to 1.0, with 1.0 being ideal. Power factor is sometimes expressed as a percent. Incandescent lamps have power factors close to 1.0 because they are simple "resistive" loads. The power factor of a fluorescent and HID lamp system is determined by the ballast used. "High" power factor usually means a rating of 0.9 or greater. Power companies may penalize users for using low power factor devices.

 

Preheat Circuit

A type of fluorescent lamp-ballast circuit used with the first commercial fluorescent lamp products. A push button or automatic switch is used to preheat the lamp cathodes to a glow state. Starting the lamp can then be accomplished using simple "choke" or reactor ballasts.

 

 

R

 

Rapid Start Circuit

A fluorescent lamp-ballast circuit that utilizes continuous cathode heating, while the system is energized, to start and maintain lamp light output at efficient levels. Rapid start ballasts may be either electromagnetic, electronic or of hybrid designs. Full-range fluorescent lamp dimming is only possible with rapid start systems.

 

Rated Lamp Life

For most lamp types, rated lamp life is the length of time of a statistically large sample between first use and the point when 50% of the lamps have died. It is possible to define "useful life" of a lamp based on practical considerations involving lumen depreciation and color shift.

 

Reflector Lamp (R)

A light source with a built-in reflecting surface. Sometimes, the term is used to refer specifically to blown bulbs like the R and ER lamps; at other times, it includes all reflectorized lamps like PAR and MR.

 

 

S

 

Scotopic/Photopic (S/P) Ratio

This measurement accounts for the fact that of the two light sensors in the retina, rods are more sensitive to blue light (pcotopic vision) and cones to yellow light (photopic vision). The pcotopic/photopic (S/P) ratio is an attempt to capture the relative strengths of these two responses. S/P is calculated as the ration of scotopic lumens to photopic lumens for the light source on an ANSI reference ballast. Cooler sources (higher color temperatures lamps) tend to have higher values of the S/P ratio compared to warm sources.

 

Specification Series (SP) Colors

Energy-efficient, all-purpose, tri-phosphor fluorescent lamp colors that provide good color rendering. The CRI for SP colors is 70 or above and varies by specific lamp type.

 

Specification Series Deluxe (SPX) Colors

Energy-efficient, all-purpose, tri-phosphor fluorescent lamp colors that provide better color rendering than Specification Series (SP) colors. The CRI for SPX colors is 80 or above and varies by specific lamp type. All GE CFL products use SPX phosphors.

 

Spectral Power Distribution (SPD)

A graph of the radiant power emitted by a light source as a function of wavelength. SPDs provide a visual profile or "finger print" of the color characteristics of the source throughout the visible part of the spectrum.

 

 

T

 

TCLP Test

The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test, specified in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1990, is used to characterize fluorescent lamp waste as hazardous or nonhazardous waste. The TCLP test measures the ability of the mercury and/or lead in a lamp to leach from a landfill into groundwater.

 

Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)

A measure of the distortion of the input current on alternating current (AC) power systems caused by higher order harmonics of the fundamental frequency (60Hz in North America). THD is expressed in percent and may refer to individual electrical loads (such as ballast) or a total electrical circuit or system in a building. ANSI C82.77 recommends THD not exceed 32% for individual commercial electronic ballasts, although some electrical utilities may require lower THDs on some systems. Excessive THDs on electrical systems can cause efficiency losses as well as overheating and deterioration of system components.

 

 

U

 

Underwriters Laboratories (UL)

A private organization which tests and lists electrical (and other) equipment for electrical and fire safety according to recognized UL and other standards. A UL listing is not an indication of overall performance. Lamps are not UL listed except for compact fluorescent lamp assemblies - those with screw bases and built-in ballasts.

 

Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation

Radiant energy in the range of about 100-380 nanometers (nm). For practical applications, the UV band is broken down further as follows:

Ozone-producing? 180-220 nm

Bactericidal (germicidal)? 220-300

Erythemal (skin reddening)? 280-320

"Black" light ? 320-400

The International Commission on Illumination (CIE) defines the UV band as UV-A (315-400 nm); UV-B (280-315 nm) and UV-C (100-280 mm).

 

 

V

 

Voltage

A measurement of the electromotive force in an electrical circuit or device expressed in volts. Voltage can be thought of as being analogous to the pressure in a waterline.

 

 

W

 

Watt

A unit of electrical power. Lamps are rated in watts to indicate the rate at which they consume energy. See Kilowatt Hour.